AP Language & Composition

They Say/I Say
Hawthorne Biography
Scarlet Letter Criticism
In Depth...Machiavelli Biography
Ripped from Your Papers #1
Ripped from Your Papers #2
Ripped From Your Papers #3
Ripped From Your Papers #4
Vocabulary Lesson 1
Vocabulary Lesson 2
Vocabulary Lesson 3
Research Sources
AP Practice Test Calendar
Multi Choice Tips and Hints
Ethos, Pathos, Logos - The Foundation of Argument
AP Language & Composition
Your Study Habits
Tone and Attitudes
Active Reading and Annotation
AP Prose Style Calendar
AP Prose Style Chapter Outlines 1-6
AP Prose Style Chapters 7-12
AP Prose Style Ch. 13-16
AP Glossary & Schedules
Glossary Presentations How To
Glossary Tests Study Tips
Passage Analysis Quick Guide
Patterns of Development Schedule, Term 2
Patterns: Description Notes
Narration Mode Notes
Example Mode
Process Analysis
Comparison Contrast Notes
Classification and Division
Cause and Effect
Outside Reading Schedules/Booklists (scroll all the way down)
Persuasive Speech/Researched Argument
They Say/I Say
They Say I Say Slides Introduction
Cornell Notes How To
Creative Writing

Great Writing Templates! 


Academic Conversation


*          In discussions of ___________, a controversial issue is whether or ______________. While some argue that _____________, others contend that ______________.

*          This is not to say that ___________________.

*          Of course, some object that ____________. Although I concede that ___________________, I still maintain that ____________.


Summarizing a Widely Held Belief


*          Many Americans assume that ___________

Providing a More Complicated Discussion

*          On the one hand, _________. On the other hand, __________.

*          Author X contradicts herself. At the same time that she argues _________________, she also implies _____________.

*          I agree that _______________.

*          This is not to say that ______________.












Ch. 1: Ways of Responding: Using the Voices of Others


*          She argues _____________, and I agree because __________.

*          Her argument that ______________ is supported by new research showing that _____________.

*          He claims that ________________, and I have mixed feelings about it. On the one hand, I agree that __________. On the other hand, I still insist that __________.

*          In recent discussions of __________, a controversial issue has been whether______________. On the one hand, some argue that _____________. From this perspective, ______________. On the other hand, however, others argue that _______________. In the words of one of this view’s main proponents, “___________________________.” According to this view, ________________________. In sum, then, the issue is whether __________________ or _______________.


*          My own view is that ___________________. Though I concede that _________________, I still maintain that ______________. For example, _______________. Although some might object that _________________, I reply that __________________. The issue is important because _____________.


Introducing What “They” Say


*          A number of sociologists have recently suggested that X’s work has several fundamental problems.

*          It has become common today to dismiss X’s contribution to the field of sociology.

*          In their recent work, Y and Z have offered harsh critiques of Dr. X for _____________.


Introducing “Standard Views”


*          Americans today tend to believe that _____________.

*          Conventional wisdom has it that ________________.

*          Common sense seems to dictate that _______________.

*          The standard way of thinking about topic X has it that ____________.

*          It is often said that _______________.

*          My whole life I have heard it said that ____________.

*          You would think that ____________________.

*          Many people assume that _____________________.


Making What “They Say” Something YOU Say


*          I have always believed that ___________________.

*          When I was a child, I used to think that _____________.

*          Although I should know better by now, I cannot help thinking that _______________________.

*          At the same time that I believe _________________, I also believe _______________________.


Introducing Something Implied or Assumed


*          Although none of them have ever said so directly, my teachers have often given me the impression that ________________.

*          One implication of X’s treatment of ___________________ is that _________________________.

*          Although X does not say so directly, she apparently assumes that _______________________.

*          While they rarely admit as much, _________________ often take for granted that __________________.




Introducing an Ongoing Debate


*          In discussions of X, one controversial issue has been ___________. On the one hand, _____________ argues _______________________. On the other hand, _____________ contends ______________. Others even maintain _______________. My own view is _______________.


*          When it comes to the topic of _____________, most of us will readily agree that ________________. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of ________________. Whereas some are convinced that ________________, others maintain that _________________.


*          In conclusion, then, as I suggested earlier, defenders of _______________ can’t have it both ways. Their assertion that __________________ is contradicted by their claim that ____________________.


Ch. 2: Introducing Summaries and Quotations


*          She demonstrates that_________________.

*          In fact, they celebrate the fact that ______________.

*          _______________, he admits.


Capturing Authorial Action


*          X acknowledges that ________________

*          X agrees that ___________________

*          X argues that _______________________

*          X believes that ______________________

*          X denies/does not deny that ______________________

*          X claims that _________________________

*          X complains that _________________________

*          X concedes that __________________________

*          X deplores the tendency to _____________________

*          X celebrates the fact that ____________________

*          X emphasizes that __________________________

*          X iinsists that ___________________________

*          X observes that _______________________

*          X questions whether ________________________

*          X refutes the claim that ______________________

*          X reminds us that __________________________

*          X reports that _____________________________

*          X suggests that ___________________________

*          X urges us to ____________________________


Ch. 3: Introducing Quotations


*      X states, “_______________.”

*      As the prominent philosopher, X puts it, “_______________.”

*      According to X, “_____________________.”

*      X himself writes, “__________________________.”

*      In her book, _________________, X maintains that “______________.”

*      Writing in the journal Commentary, X complains that “_____________.”

*      In X’s view, “______________________.”

*      X agrees when she writes, “____________________.”

*      X disagrees when he writes, “______________________.”

*      X complicates matters further when she writes, “________________.”


Explaining Quotations

*      X is saying ______________.

*      In other words, X believes ______________.

*      In making this comment, X argues that _______________.

*      X is insisting that _______________________.

*      X’s point is that __________________________.

*      The essence of X’s argument is that _____________________.


Ch. 4: Disagreeing With Reasons


*      I think X is mistaken because she overlooks _________________.

*      X’s claim that _______________ rests upon the questionable assumption that ______________________.

*      I disagree with X’s view that __________________ because, as recent research has shown, _______________.

*      X contradicts herself. On the one hand, she argues _____________. But on the other hand, she also says ___________________.

*      By focusing on __________________, X overlooks the deeper problem of ___________________________.

*      X claims _______________, but we don’t need him to tell us that. Anyone familiar with ___________________ has long known that ______________.


Templates for Agreeing


*      I agree that ______ because my experience ______________ confirms it.

*      X is surely right about ________________, because as she may not be aware, recent studies have shown that _____________.

*      X’s theory of ________________ is extremely useful because it sheds insight on the difficult problem of _________________.

*      I agree that _________________, a point that needs emphasizing since so many people believe _________________.

*      Those unfamiliar with this school of thought may be interested to know that it boils down to _________________.

*      I agree that __________, a point that needs emphasizing since so many people believe _________________.

*      If group X is right that _______________, as I think they are, then we need to reassess the popular assumption that _______________.


Agreeing and Disagreeing Simultaneously


*      Although I agree with X up to a point, I cannot accept his overall conclusion that ____________________.

*      Although I disagree with much that X says, I fully endorse his final conclusion that _________________.

*      Though I concede that ______________, I still insist that ______________.

*      X is right that ________________, but she seems on more dubious ground when she claims that _______________.

*      While X is probably wrong when she claims that _________________, she is right that __________________.

*      Whereas X provides ample evidence that ________________, Y and Z’s research on __________________ and _________________ convinces me that _________________ instead.

*      I am of two minds about X’s claim that ___________________. On the one hand, I agree that _______________. On the other hand, I’m not sure if______________________.

*      My feelings on the issue are mixed. I do support X’s position that _____________, but I find Y’s argument about ______________ and Z’s research on _______________ to be equally persuasive.


Ch. 5: Signaling Who is Saying What in Your Own Writing


*      X argues ____________.

*      According to both X and Y, __________________.

*      Politicians, X argues, should __________________.

*      Most athletes will tell you that _________________.

*      My own view, however, is that __________________.

*      I agree, as X may not realize, that __________________.

*      X is right that _________________.

*      The evidence shows that _________________.

*      X’s assertion that _________________ does not fit the facts.

*      Anyone familiar with _______________ should agree that ____________.

*      But _______________ are real, and are arguably the most significant factor in ___________________.


Embedding Voice Markers


*      X overlooks what I consider an important point about ______________.

*      My own view is that what X insists is a ___________ is in fact a _____________.

*      I wholeheartedly endorse what X calls ________________.

*      These conclusions, which X discusses in _____________, add weight to the argument that _______________.


Ch. 6: Entertaining Objections


*      Yet some readers may challenge my view that ________________. After all, many believe that _______________. Indeed, my own argument that ________________________ seems to ignore _________________ and ___________________.

*      Of course, many will probably disagree with this assertion that _____________________________.


Naming Your Naysayers


*      Here many feminists would probably object that _________________.

*      But social Darwinists would certainly take issue with the argument that _________________________.

*      Biologists, of course, may want to dispute my claim that _____________.

*      Nevertheless, both followers and critics of Malcolm X will probably suggest otherwise and argue that ________________.

*      Although not all Christians think alike, some of them will probably dispute my claim that _________________.

*      Non-native English speakers are so diverse in their views that it’s hard to generalize about them, but some are likely to object on the grounds that _______________________.

Introducing Objections Informally


*      But is my proposal realistic? What are the chances of its actually being adopted?

*      Yet is it always true that _______________? Is it always the case, as I have been suggesting, that _________________________?

*      However, does the evidence I’ve cited prove conclusively that ___________________?



You may also let your naysayer speak directly.

*      “Impossible,” you say. “Your evidence must be skewed.”




Making Concessions While Still Standing Your Ground


*      Although I grant that ______________, I still maintain that ________________.

*      Proponents of X are right to argue that ____________________. But they exaggerate when they claim that ______________________.

*      While it is true that ____________________, it does not necessarily follow that _____________________.

*      On the one hand, I agree with X that ________________________. But on the other hand, I still insist that __________________________.




Ch. 7: Indicating Who Cares


*      _______________ used to think ______________. But recently (or within the past few decades), _____________ suggests that _________________.

*      This interpretation challenges the work of those critics who have long assumed that _______________.

*      These findings challenge the work of earlier researchers, who tended to assume that _______________.

*      Recent studies like these shed new light on ______________________, which previous studies had not addressed.


*      But who really cares? Who besides me and a handful of recent researchers has a stake in these claims? At the very least, the researchers who assumed that fat ________________should care.



*      Researchers have long assumed that __________________. For instance, one eminent scholar of cell biology, ___________________, assumed in _____________________, her seminal work on cell structures and functions, that fat cells _______________________. As ______________________herself put it, “___________.”

*      Another leading scientist, _____________, argued that fat cells “_____________________.” Ultimately,, when it came to the nature of fat, the basic assumption was that ____________________.

*      But a new body of research shows that fat cells are far more complex and that ___________________.


*          If sports enthusiasts stopped to think about it, may of them might simply assume that the most successful athletes ___________________.


So What? Establishing Why Your Claims Matter


*      X matters/is important because ________________.

*      Although X may seem trivial, it is in fact crucial in terms of today’s concern over ______________.

*      Ultimately, what is at stake here is ____________________.

*      These findings have important consequences for the broader domain of __________________.

*      My discussion of X is in fact addressing the larger matter of ____________________.

*      These conclusions/this discovery will have significant applications in ____________ as well as in ________________.


*      Although X may seem of concern to only a small group of _____________, it  should in fact concern anyone who cares about



Ch. 8: Connecting the parts


Use Transitions (see also in table to follow)


*      Addition: also, and, besides, furthermore, in addition, indeed, in fact, moreover, so too

*      Example: after all, as an illustration, for example, for instance, specifically, to take a case in point

*      Elaboration: actually, by extension, in short, that is, in other words, to put it another way, to put it  bluntly, to put it succinctly, ultimately

*      Comparison: along the same lines, in the same way, likewise, similarly

*      Contrast: although, but, by contrast, conversely, despite the fact that, even though, however, in contrast, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, regardless, whereas, while yet

*      Cause and effect: accordingly, as a result, consequently, hence, since, so, then, therefore, thus

*      Concession: admittedly, although it istrue, granted, naturally, of course, to be sure

*      Conclusion: as a result, consequently, hence, in conclusion, in short, in sum, therefore, thus, to sum up, to summarize






Ch. 10: Metacommentary


*      In other words, ________________.

*      What _____________________ really means is______________

*      My point is __________________.

*      Essentially, I am arguing that ____________________.

*      My point is not that we should ___________________, but that we should _______________.

*      What _________________ really means is _______________________.

*      To put it another way, _________________.


To provide readers with a roadmap to your text:


*      Chapter 2 explores ____________________, while Chapter 3 examines _____________________.

*      Having just argued that _____________________, let us now turn our attention to ________________.


To move from a general claim to a specific example:


*      For example, ______________________.

*      ____________ , for instance, demonstrates _________________.

*      Consider ________, for example.

*      To take a case in point, ________________.


To indicate that a claim is especially important, or less important


*      Even more important, _________________.

*      But above all, _______________________.

*      Incidentally, ________________________

*      By the way, _______________________.


To help you anticipate and respond to objection


*      Although some readers may object that ___________________, I would answer that ____________________.


To guide readers to your most general point

*      Having just argued that _________________, let us now turn our attention to ______________________.

*      In sum, then, ________________________.

*      My conclusion, then, is that ______________________.

*      In short, ________________________.

*      What is more important, _______________________.


Commonly Used Transitions


Cause and Effect




As a result


As a result



The upshot of all this is that







In conclusion, then


It follows, then


In short

To sum up



In sum, then

To summarize



It follows, then




Along the same lines




In the same way






By contrast

On the contrary




On the other hand



Despite the fact that




Even though








In contrast





In fact


Of course



Although it is true that





To be sure


So too

I concede that


In addition






After all

For instance


To put it another way

As an illustration


By extension

To put it bluntly


To take a case in point

In short

To put it succinctly

For example


That is




In other words



Verbs for Introducing

Summaries and Quotations



Verbs for Making a Claim






Remind us





Verbs for Expressing Agreement







Celebrate the fact that




Do not deny


Verbs for Questioning or Disagreeing











Deplore the tendency to


Verbs for Making Recommendations



Call for










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