In discussions of ___________, a controversial issue is whether
or ______________. While some argue that _____________, others contend that ______________.
This is not to say that ___________________.
Of course, some object that ____________. Although I concede
that ___________________, I still maintain that ____________.
Summarizing a Widely Held Belief
Many Americans assume that ___________
Providing a More Complicated Discussion
On the one hand, _________. On the other hand, __________.
Author X contradicts herself. At the same time that she argues
_________________, she also implies _____________.
I agree that _______________.
This is not to say that ______________.
Ch. 1: Ways of Responding: Using the Voices of Others
She argues _____________, and I agree because __________.
Her argument that ______________ is supported by new research
showing that _____________.
He claims that ________________, and I have mixed feelings
about it. On the one hand, I agree that __________. On the other hand, I still insist that __________.
In recent discussions of __________, a controversial issue
has been whether______________. On the one hand, some argue that _____________. From this perspective, ______________. On
the other hand, however, others argue that _______________. In the words of one of this view’s main proponents, “___________________________.”
According to this view, ________________________. In sum, then, the issue is whether __________________ or _______________.
My own view is that ___________________. Though I concede that
_________________, I still maintain that ______________. For example, _______________. Although some might object that _________________,
I reply that __________________. The issue is important because _____________.
Introducing What “They” Say
A number of sociologists have recently suggested that X’s
work has several fundamental problems.
It has become common today to dismiss X’s contribution
to the field of sociology.
In their recent work, Y and Z have offered harsh critiques
of Dr. X for _____________.
Introducing “Standard Views”
Americans today tend to believe that _____________.
Conventional wisdom has it that ________________.
Common sense seems to dictate that _______________.
The standard way of thinking about topic X has it that ____________.
It is often said that _______________.
My whole life I have heard it said that ____________.
You would think that ____________________.
Many people assume that _____________________.
Making What “They Say” Something YOU Say
I have always believed that ___________________.
When I was a child, I used to think that _____________.
Although I should know better by now, I cannot help thinking
At the same time that I believe _________________, I also believe
Introducing Something Implied or Assumed
Although none of them have ever said so directly, my teachers
have often given me the impression that ________________.
One implication of X’s treatment of ___________________
is that _________________________.
Although X does not say so directly, she apparently assumes
While they rarely admit as much, _________________ often take
for granted that __________________.
Introducing an Ongoing Debate
In discussions of X, one controversial issue has been ___________.
On the one hand, _____________ argues _______________________. On the other hand, _____________ contends ______________. Others
even maintain _______________. My own view is _______________.
When it comes to the topic of _____________, most of us will
readily agree that ________________. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of ________________. Whereas
some are convinced that ________________, others maintain that _________________.
In conclusion, then, as I suggested earlier, defenders of _______________
can’t have it both ways. Their assertion that __________________ is contradicted by their claim that ____________________.
Ch. 2: Introducing
Summaries and Quotations
She demonstrates that_________________.
In fact, they celebrate the fact that ______________.
_______________, he admits.
Capturing Authorial Action
X acknowledges that ________________
X agrees that ___________________
X argues that _______________________
X believes that ______________________
X denies/does not deny that ______________________
X claims that _________________________
X complains that _________________________
X concedes that __________________________
X deplores the tendency to _____________________
X celebrates the fact that ____________________
X emphasizes that __________________________
X iinsists that ___________________________
X observes that _______________________
X questions whether ________________________
X refutes the claim that ______________________
X reminds us that __________________________
X reports that _____________________________
X suggests that ___________________________
X urges us to ____________________________
Ch. 3: Introducing
X states, “_______________.”
As the prominent philosopher, X puts it, “_______________.”
According to X, “_____________________.”
X himself writes, “__________________________.”
In her book, _________________, X maintains that “______________.”
Writing in the journal Commentary, X complains
In X’s view, “______________________.”
X agrees when she writes, “____________________.”
X disagrees when he writes, “______________________.”
X complicates matters further when she writes, “________________.”
X is saying ______________.
In other words, X believes ______________.
In making this comment, X argues that _______________.
X is insisting that _______________________.
X’s point is that __________________________.
The essence of X’s argument is that _____________________.
Ch. 4: Disagreeing
I think X is mistaken because she overlooks _________________.
X’s claim that _______________ rests upon the questionable assumption that ______________________.
I disagree with X’s view that __________________ because, as recent research
has shown, _______________.
X contradicts herself. On the one hand, she argues _____________. But on the other
hand, she also says ___________________.
By focusing on __________________, X overlooks the deeper problem of ___________________________.
X claims _______________, but we don’t need him to tell us that. Anyone familiar
with ___________________ has long known that ______________.
Templates for Agreeing
I agree that ______ because my experience ______________ confirms it.
X is surely right about ________________, because as she may not be aware, recent
studies have shown that _____________.
X’s theory of ________________ is extremely useful because it sheds insight
on the difficult problem of _________________.
I agree that _________________, a point that needs emphasizing since so many people
Those unfamiliar with this school of thought may be interested to know that it boils
down to _________________.
I agree that __________, a point that needs emphasizing since so many people believe
If group X is right that _______________, as I think they are, then we need to reassess
the popular assumption that _______________.
Agreeing and Disagreeing Simultaneously
Although I agree with X up to a point, I cannot accept his overall conclusion that
Although I disagree with much that X says, I fully endorse his final conclusion that
Though I concede that ______________, I still insist that ______________.
X is right that ________________, but she seems on more dubious ground when she claims
While X is probably wrong when she claims that _________________, she is right that
Whereas X provides ample evidence that ________________, Y and Z’s research
on __________________ and _________________ convinces me that _________________ instead.
I am of two minds about X’s claim that ___________________. On the one hand,
I agree that _______________. On the other hand, I’m not sure if______________________.
My feelings on the issue are mixed. I do support X’s position that _____________,
but I find Y’s argument about ______________ and Z’s research on _______________ to be equally persuasive.
Ch. 5: Signaling Who
is Saying What in Your Own Writing
X argues ____________.
According to both X and Y, __________________.
Politicians, X argues, should __________________.
Most athletes will tell you that _________________.
My own view, however, is that __________________.
I agree, as X may not realize, that __________________.
X is right that _________________.
The evidence shows that _________________.
X’s assertion that _________________ does not fit the facts.
Anyone familiar with _______________ should agree that ____________.
But _______________ are real, and are arguably the most significant factor in ___________________.
Embedding Voice Markers
X overlooks what I consider an important point about ______________.
My own view is that what X insists is a ___________ is in fact a _____________.
I wholeheartedly endorse what X calls ________________.
These conclusions, which X discusses in _____________, add weight to the argument
Ch. 6: Entertaining
Yet some readers may challenge my view that ________________. After all, many believe
that _______________. Indeed, my own argument that ________________________ seems to ignore _________________ and ___________________.
Of course, many will probably disagree with this assertion that _____________________________.
Naming Your Naysayers
Here many feminists would probably object that _________________.
But social Darwinists would certainly take
issue with the argument that _________________________.
Biologists, of course, may want to dispute my claim that _____________.
Nevertheless, both followers and critics of
Malcolm X will probably suggest otherwise and argue that ________________.
Although not all Christians think alike,
some of them will probably dispute my claim that _________________.
Non-native English speakers are so diverse in their views that it’s hard to generalize about them,
but some are likely to object on the grounds that _______________________.
Introducing Objections Informally
But is my proposal realistic? What are the chances of its actually being adopted?
Yet is it always true that _______________? Is it always the case, as I have been
suggesting, that _________________________?
However, does the evidence I’ve cited prove conclusively that ___________________?
You may also let your naysayer speak directly.
“Impossible,” you say. “Your evidence must be skewed.”
Making Concessions While Still Standing Your Ground
Although I grant that ______________, I still maintain that ________________.
Proponents of X are right to argue that ____________________. But they exaggerate
when they claim that ______________________.
While it is true that ____________________, it does not necessarily follow that _____________________.
On the one hand, I agree with X that ________________________. But on the other hand,
I still insist that __________________________.
Ch. 7: Indicating Who
_______________ used to think ______________. But recently (or within the past few
decades), _____________ suggests that _________________.
This interpretation challenges the work of those critics who have long assumed that
These findings challenge the work of earlier researchers, who tended to assume that
Recent studies like these shed new light on ______________________, which previous
studies had not addressed.
But who really cares? Who besides me and a handful of recent researchers has a stake
in these claims? At the very least, the researchers who assumed that fat ________________should care.
Researchers have long assumed that __________________. For instance, one eminent scholar
of cell biology, ___________________, assumed in _____________________, her seminal work on cell structures and functions,
that fat cells _______________________. As ______________________herself put it, “___________.”
Another leading scientist, _____________, argued that fat cells “_____________________.”
Ultimately,, when it came to the nature of fat, the basic assumption was that ____________________.
But a new body of research shows that fat cells are far more complex and that ___________________.
If sports enthusiasts stopped to think about it, may of them
might simply assume that the most successful athletes ___________________.
So What? Establishing Why Your Claims Matter
X matters/is important because ________________.
Although X may seem trivial, it is in fact crucial in terms of today’s concern
Ultimately, what is at stake here is ____________________.
These findings have important consequences for the broader domain of __________________.
My discussion of X is in fact addressing the larger matter of ____________________.
These conclusions/this discovery will have significant applications in ____________
as well as in ________________.
Although X may seem of concern to only a small group of _____________, it should in fact concern anyone who cares about
Ch. 8: Connecting the
Use Transitions (see also in table to follow)
Addition: also, and, besides, furthermore, in
addition, indeed, in fact, moreover, so too
Example: after all, as an illustration, for example,
for instance, specifically, to take a case in point
Elaboration: actually, by extension, in short,
that is, in other words, to put it another way, to put it bluntly, to put it
Comparison: along the same lines, in the same
way, likewise, similarly
Contrast: although, but, by contrast, conversely,
despite the fact that, even though, however, in contrast, nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, regardless,
whereas, while yet
Cause and effect: accordingly, as a result, consequently,
hence, since, so, then, therefore, thus
Concession: admittedly, although it istrue, granted,
naturally, of course, to be sure
Conclusion: as a result, consequently, hence,
in conclusion, in short, in sum, therefore, thus, to sum up, to summarize
Ch. 10: Metacommentary
In other words, ________________.
What _____________________ really means is______________
My point is __________________.
Essentially, I am arguing that ____________________.
My point is not that we should ___________________, but that we should _______________.
What _________________ really means is _______________________.
To put it another way, _________________.
To provide readers with a roadmap to your text:
Chapter 2 explores ____________________, while Chapter 3 examines _____________________.
Having just argued that _____________________, let us now turn our attention to ________________.
To move from a general claim to a specific example:
For example, ______________________.
____________ , for instance, demonstrates _________________.
Consider ________, for example.
To take a case in point, ________________.
To indicate that a claim is especially important, or less important
Even more important, _________________.
But above all, _______________________.
By the way, _______________________.
To help you anticipate and respond to objection
Although some readers may object that ___________________, I would answer that ____________________.
To guide readers to your most general point
Having just argued that _________________, let us now turn our attention to ______________________.
In sum, then, ________________________.
My conclusion, then, is that ______________________.
In short, ________________________.
What is more important, _______________________.