AP Language & Composition

Hawthorne Biography
Scarlet Letter Criticism
In Depth...Machiavelli Biography
Ripped from Your Papers #1
Ripped from Your Papers #2
Ripped From Your Papers #3
Ripped From Your Papers #4
Vocabulary Lesson 1
Vocabulary Lesson 2
Vocabulary Lesson 3
Research Sources
AP Practice Test Calendar
Multi Choice Tips and Hints
Ethos, Pathos, Logos - The Foundation of Argument
AP Language & Composition
Your Study Habits
Tone and Attitudes
Active Reading and Annotation
AP Prose Style Calendar
AP Prose Style Chapter Outlines 1-6
AP Prose Style Chapters 7-12
AP Prose Style Ch. 13-16
AP Glossary & Schedules
Glossary Presentations How To
Glossary Tests Study Tips
Passage Analysis Quick Guide
Patterns of Development Schedule, Term 2
Patterns: Description Notes
Narration Mode Notes
Example Mode
Process Analysis
Comparison Contrast Notes
Classification and Division
Cause and Effect
Outside Reading Schedules/Booklists (scroll all the way down)
Persuasive Speech/Researched Argument
They Say/I Say
They Say I Say Slides Introduction
Cornell Notes How To
Creative Writing

The Definition Mode


Definition sets the boundaries of a thing, concept, an emotion, or a value.

  It answers the questions: “What is it?” and “What is it not?” by specifying the main qualities of the subject and its essential nature.

  We use this mode all the time! (essential for communication)



Formal definition: usually a statement of general class of things to which the word belongs, followed by the distinctions between it and other members of the class.


A parable is a brief, simple story (class) that illustrates a moral or religious principle (distinction).


  Usually involves a dictionary definition (class) or a specialized meaning agreed on by professionals (distinction).


Stipulative: clarifies the particular way you are using a word; you specify a meaning to fit a larger purpose.

Extended: used just for the sake of defining, for the purpose of exploration until the definition is precise and complete. (might take a whole paragraph, essay, book to define)

  Most often for complex, vague, emotionally laden subjects (that cause people to disagree).

  Purpose might include persuasion (getting readers to agree with your definition).


Strategies employed:

  Synonyms to convey range of word’s meanings.

  Negation (saying what a word does not mean) to limit the word’s meaning

  Etymology (history of the word) to illuminate its meaning by showing how it has changed over time.

  Enumeration: listing its characteristics

  Analogies: comparisons that identify similarities bet. the term and something different.

  Again, this method may be used in conjunction with other methods.

  (in the college application/narration essay, you might have actually defined yourself!)


Writing in the definition mode


  Come up with a subject that you care about enough to go into detail. This should also be complex and open to interpretation.

  Explore the subject by examining and listing the conventional meanings (check out the dictionary!).

  Then consider the different ways you’ve heard/seen the word used (right and wrong)


Questions to consider:

1.      How can the subject be described?

2.      What are some examples?

3.      Can the subject be divided into qualities or characteristics?

4.      Can its functions help define it?

5.      Will comparing and contrasting it with something else help sharpen its meaning?

6.      Do its causes or effects help clarify its sense?

Consider your purpose when considering the thesis statement. Is it to explain? Make a familiar subject new? Argue in favor of one definition or persuade readers to think more critically about something?


Do not provide the term you are defining in your definition!


If a handout is available online (e.g., a newspaper article) I might include the appropriate link to the information students need on this page.